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Hydrogen:

Hydrogen is the chemical element with atomic number 1.It is represented by the symbol H. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75 % of the Universe's elemental mass. Stars in the main sequence are mainly composed of hydrogen in its plasma state. Naturally occurring elemental hydrogen is relatively rare on Earth.

Hydrogen gas (now known to be H2) was first artificially produced in the early 16th century, via the mixing of metals with strong acids. In 1766–81, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognise that hydrogen gas was a discrete substance, and that it produces water when burned, a property which later gave it its name, which in Greek means "water-former". At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colourless, odourless, non-metallic, tasteless, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2.

Industrial production is mainly from the steam reforming of natural gas, and less often from more energy-intensive hydrogen production methods like the electrolysis of water.

Hydrogen is a concern in metallurgy as it can em-brittle many metals complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks.

Combustion:

Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen) is highly flammable and will burn in air at a very wide range of concentrations between 4% and 75% by volume.

Hydrogen gas forms explosive mixtures with air in the concentration range 4-74% (volume per cent of hydrogen in air) and with chlorine in the range 5-95%. The mixtures spontaneously detonate by spark, heat or sunlight. The hydrogen auto-ignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F).[12] Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle main engine compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. The detection of a burning hydrogen leak may require a flame detector; such leaks can be very dangerous. The destruction of the Hindenburg airship was an infamous example of hydrogen combustion; the cause is debated, but the visible flames were the result of combustible materials in the ship's skin.Because hydrogen is buoyant in air, hydrogen flames tend to ascend rapidly and cause less damage than hydrocarbon fires. Two-thirds of the Hindenburg passengers survived the fire, and many deaths were instead the result of falls or burning diesel fuel.

Discovery and Use:

Hydrogen gas, H2, was first artificially produced and formally described by T. Von Hohenheim (also known as Paracelsus, 1493–1541) via the mixing of metals with strong acids. He was unaware that the flammable gas produced by this chemical reaction was a new chemical element. In 1671, Robert Boyle rediscovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids, which results in the production of hydrogen gas In 1766, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognise hydrogen gas as a discrete substance, by identifying the gas from a metal-acid reaction as "flammable air" and further finding in 1781 that the gas produces water when burned. He is usually given credit for its discovery as an element. In 1783, Antoine Lavoisier gave the element the name hydrogen (from the Greek hydro meaning water and genes meaning creator) when he and Laplace reproduced Cavendish's finding that water is produced when hydrogen is burned.

Hydrogen was liquefied for the first time by James Dewar in 1898 by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask. He produced solid hydrogen the next year. Deuterium was discovered in December 1931 by Harold Urey, and tritium was prepared in 1934 by Ernest Rutherford, Mark Oliphant, and Paul Harteck. Heavy water, which consists of deuterium in the place of regular hydrogen, was discovered by Urey's group in 1932. François Isaac de Rivaz built the first internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in 1806. Edward Daniel Clarke invented the hydrogen gas blowpipe in 1819. The Döbereiner's lamp and limelight were invented in 1823.

The first hydrogen-filled balloon was invented by Jacques Charles in 1783. Hydrogen provided the lift for the first reliable form of air-travel following the 1852 invention of the first hydrogen-lifted airship by Henri Giffard. German count Ferdinand von Zeppelin promoted the idea of rigid airships lifted by hydrogen that later were called Zeppelins; the first of which had its maiden flight in 1900. Regularly scheduled flights started in 1910 and by the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, they had carried 35,000 passengers without a serious incident. Hydrogen-lifted airships were used as observation platforms and bombers during the war.

 

The first non-stop transatlantic crossing was made by the British airship R34 in 1919. Regular passenger service resumed in the 1920s and the discovery of helium reserves in the United States promised increased safety, but the U.S. government refused to sell the gas for this purpose. Therefore, H2 was used in the Hindenburg airship, which was destroyed in a mid-air fire over New Jersey on May 6, 1937. The incident was broadcast live on radio and filmed. Ignition of leaking hydrogen is widely assumed to be the cause, but later investigations pointed to the ignition of the aluminised fabric coating by static electricity. But the damage to hydrogen's reputation as a lifting gas was already done. In the same year the first hydrogen-cooled turbo-generator went into service with gaseous hydrogen as a coolant in the rotor and the stator in 1937 at Dayton, Ohio, by the Dayton Power & Light Co,[59] because of the thermal conductivity of hydrogen gas this is the most common type in its field today. The nickel hydrogen battery was used for the first time in 1977 aboard the U.S. Navy's Navigation technology satellite-2 (NTS-2).[60] For example, the ISS, Mars Odyssey and the Mars Global Surveyor are equipped with nickel-hydrogen batteries. The Hubble Space Telescope, at the time its original batteries were finally changed in May 2009, more than 19 years after launch, led with the highest number of charge/discharge cycles.

 

 

 

Natural Occurrence:

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, making up 75% of normal matter by mass and over 90% by number of atoms. This element is found in great abundance in stars and gas giant planets. Molecular clouds of H2 are associated with star formation. Hydrogen plays a vital role in powering stars through proton-proton reaction and CNO cycle nuclear fusion.

 

Throughout the universe, hydrogen is mostly found in the atomic and plasma states whose properties are quite different from molecular hydrogen. As a plasma, hydrogen's electron and proton are not bound together, resulting in very high electrical conductivity and high emissivity (producing the light from the sun and other stars). The charged particles are highly influenced by magnetic and electric fields. For example, in the solar wind they interact with the Earth's magnetosphere giving rise to Birkeland currents and the Earth's magnetosphere giving rise to Birkeland currents and the aurora.

 

 

Production:

The electrolysis of water is a simple method of producing hydrogen. A low voltage current is run through the water, and gaseous oxygen forms at the anode while gaseous hydrogen forms at the cathode. Typically the cathode is made from platinum or another inert metal when producing hydrogen for storage. If, however, the gas is to be burnt on site, oxygen is desirable to assist the combustion, and so both electrodes would be made from inert metals. (Iron, for instance, would oxidise, and thus decrease the amount of oxygen given off.) The theoretical maximum efficiency (electricity used vs. energetic value of hydrogen produced) is between 80–94%.

 

 

 

 

2H2O(aq) → 2H2(g) + O2(g)

 

 

 

 

In 2007, it was discovered that an alloy of aluminium and gallium in pellet form added to water could be used to generate hydrogen. The process also creates alumina, but the expensive gallium, which prevents the formation of an oxide skin on the pellets, can be re-used. This has important potential implications for a hydrogen economy, since hydrogen can be produced on-site and does not need to be transported.

 

 

 

 

 

Energy Carrier:

Hydrogen is not an energy resource, except in the hypothetical context of commercial nuclear fusion power plants using deuterium or tritium, a technology presently far from development. The Sun's energy comes from nuclear fusion of hydrogen, but this process is difficult to achieve controllably on Earth. Elemental hydrogen from solar, biological, or electrical sources require more energy to make it than is obtained by burning it, so in these cases hydrogen functions as an energy carrier, like a battery.

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrogen may be obtained from fossil sources (such as methane), but these sources are unsustainable.

 

 

 

 

 

Biological Reactions:

Water splitting, in which water is decomposed into its component protons, electrons, and oxygen, occurs in the light reactions in all photosynthetic organisms. Some such organisms—including the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacteria—have evolved a second step in the dark reactions in which protons and electrons are reduced to form H2 gas by specialised hydrogenases in the chloroplast. Efforts have been undertaken to genetically modify cyanobacterial hydrogenases to efficiently synthesise H2 gas even in the presence of oxygen. Efforts have also been undertaken with genetically modified alga in a bioreactor.

 

 

 

 

 

Safety and Precautions:

Hydrogen poses a number of hazards to human safety, from potential detonations and fires when mixed with air to being an asphyxiant in its pure, oxygen-free form. In addition, liquid hydrogen is a cryogen and presents dangers (such as frostbite) associated with very cold liquids. Hydrogen dissolves in many metals, and, in addition to leaking out, may have adverse effects on them, such as hydrogen embrittlement, leading to cracks and explosions. Hydrogen gas leaking into external air may spontaneously ignite. Moreover, hydrogen fire,while being extremely hot, is almost invisible, and thus can lead to accidental burns.

 

 

 

 

 

Even interpreting the hydrogen data (including safety data) is confounded by a number of phenomena. Many physical and chemical properties of hydrogen depend on the parahydrogen/orthohydrogen ratio (it often takes days or weeks at a given temperature to reach the equilibrium ratio, for which the data is usually given). Hydrogen detonation parameters, such as critical detonation pressure and temperature, strongly depend on the container geometry.

 

 

 

 

 

Health Effects Of Hydrogen:

Effects of exposure to hydrogen: Fire: Extremely flammable. Many reactions may cause fire or explosion. Explosion: Gas/air mixtures are explosive. Routes of exposure: The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation. Inhalation: High concentrations of this gas can cause an oxygen-deficient environment. Individuals breathing such an atmosphere may experience symptoms which include headaches, ringing in ears, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, nausea, vomiting and depression of all the senses. The skin of a victim may have a blue colour. Under some circumstances, death may occur. Hydrogen is not expected to cause mutagenicity, embryo-toxicity, teratogenicity or reproductive toxicity. Pre-existing respiratory conditions may be aggravated by overexposure to hydrogen. Inhalation risk: On loss of containment, a harmful concentration of this gas in the air will be reached very quickly.

 

 

 

 

 

Physical dangers: The gas mixes well with air, explosive mixtures are easily formed. The gas is lighter than air.

 

 

 

 

 

Chemical dangers: Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion. Reacts violently with air, oxygen, halogens and strong oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard. Metal catalysts, such as platinum and nickel, greatly enhance these reactions.

 

 

 

 

 

High concentrations in the air cause a deficiency of oxygen with the risk of unconsciousness or death. Check oxygen content before entering area. No odour warning if toxic concentrations are present. Measure hydrogen concentrations with suitable gas detector (a normal flammable gas detector is not suited for the purpose).

 

 

 

 

 

First aid: Fire: Shut off supply; if not possible and no risk to surroundings, let the fire burn itself out; in other cases extinguish with water spray, powder, carbon dioxide. Explosion: In case of fire: keep cylinder cool by spraying with water. Combat fire from a sheltered position. Inhalation: Fresh air, rest. Artificial respiration may be needed. Refer for medical attention. Skin: Refer for medical attention.

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental Effects Of Hydrogen:

Hydrogen in the environment: Hydrogen forms 0.15 % of the earth's crust, it is the major constituent of water. 0.5 ppm of hydrogen H2 and varial proportions as water vapour are present in the atmosphere. Hydrogen is also a major component of biomass, consituing the 14% by weight.

 

 

 

 

 

Environmental stability: hydrogen occurs naturally in the atmosphere. The gas will be dissipated rapidly in well - ventilated areas.

 

 

 

 

 

Effect on plants or animals: Any effect on animals would be related to oxygen deficient environments. No adverse effect is anticipated to occur to plant life, except for frost produced in the presence of rapidly expanding gases.

 

 

 

 

 

Effect on aquatic life: No evidence is currently available on the effect of hydrogen on aquatic life.

 

 

 

 

 

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